Education (Primary, Secondary, and Higher); Psychology; Social Services

Photograph of library


Generally speaking, those interested in Education may consider teaching and non-teaching career options.

For those who already have a Bachelor’s degree, a teacher residency program is a good option to prepare for teaching in public schools. These programs typically consist of classroom apprenticeship combined with masters-level education. Since these teacher preparation programs vary and require a commitment to teach in the district for several years, it’s important to find the program that will meet your needs.

There are teaching apprenticeship programs for individuals interested in teaching in a private school.

There are myriad extracurricular opportunities to mentor, tutor, and facilitate groups of school age children to gain experience and see if teaching is right for you.

Opportunities beyond teaching are plenty, including operations, administration, consulting, sales, and can include working in government education departments and boards, cultural institutions, and educational technology designers and providers.


Psychology as a field is another “helping” profession, often more research-focused than teaching or social work. Clinical and counseling psychology are popular career pathways within this field, enabling the degree-holder to engage in research, practice, or a combination of the two. A PhD or PsyD is required, followed by a year-long APA-accredited internship, in order to become eligible for licensure. Other, less time-consuming paths exist within the profession, such as helping facilitate change within business and monitoring youthful offenders.

Social Work

Social workers can practice at the micro level, which entails working one-on-one with clients (most often in a clinical capacity), or on a macro level, which involves policy work. Social workers may work in private practice, schools, hospitals, private or government agencies, correctional facilities, or in hospice, to name just a few work environments. To practice as a clinical social worker, it’s necessary to obtain a Master of Social Work (MSW) degree and pass a licensing exam. Becoming a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker, eligible to accept third-party payments, requires two years of supervised practice and passing a second, more advanced licensing exam.

Finding Internships

Working with children, in structured or unstructured settings, should help you decide if you enjoy teaching. Phillips Brooks House offers numerous opportunities to work in educator roles, in school and community settings. Tutoring Plus or holding a summer job in a college-based program for secondary school students such as Breakthrough Greater Boston, are but a few of the other ways in which you might test your interest (and gain creditable experience) in teaching.

If you're interested in social work or psychology, you won't be able to find an internship that allows you to actually practice, due to academic and licensing requirements. Instead, look for internships that will enable you to develop skills working with the populations or issues in which you’re interested. For example, if you’d like to focus your social work practice on working with domestic violence survivors, intern at a women's shelter. If you envision a macro social work practice, consider interning at a Department of Social Services.

Finding Jobs

Although teaching in public schools generally requires state certification, there are several programs that enable those with a bachelor’s degree to teach as they work toward their certification. The National Center for Alternative Certification is a comprehensive resource for alternative routes to certification in the United States.

Public Charter schools and private schools are not bound by the same state certification requirements and will hire those with a bachelor's degree. Various independent schools also offer Teaching Assistantships or year-long internship opportunities for those with a bachelor’s degree

Many of the full-time jobs available to you in psychology and social work without professional licensure may be less practice-oriented than you’d prefer. Still, there are exceptions, particularly if you’re willing to be open-minded about where you work and with what populations. University-affiliated hospitals like McLean and Butler, offer entry level jobs working directly with patients. Many group-living residences hire recent grads as daytime or awake overnight staff. With some research experience as an undergrad, you can likely find work as a research assistant at a major hospital. If education is of interest, consider a program like Match Corps or Wediko, both of which encourage close mentoring relationships with students.

To find a full-time job as a social worker, you'll need to complete an MSW program and pass a licensing exam. If you don't plan to go to graduate school directly after completing your undergraduate degree, look for jobs or internships that will enable you to develop skills working with the populations or issues in which you're interested.

Global Opportunities

Teaching abroad in U.S. international schools usually requires certification and two years of experience. Candidates typically learn of these opportunities via a teacher placement hiring fair, which take place several times per year, in varying locations. Administrative openings abroad are often also publicized by teacher placement services, as well as by some international associations.

There are many opportunities abroad to develop the skill set necessary for a career in social work. Students looking for longer term opportunities might consider the Peace Corps or the Jesuit Volunteer Corps. Shorter types of opportunities can also be found.

Graduate and Professional Programs

Graduate schools of education train teachers, researchers, administrators, and policy-makers. For long-term public school teachers, a master’s degree in such an institution is usually required. While independent schools are free to hire uncertified teachers, they often appreciate some higher education, in a subject area or in education theory. Administrators train in schools of education, or, occasionally in business schools. People who work on policy matters may have degrees from education schools, from public policy schools, or from arts and sciences schools; their choice of place to train affects the type and scope of the learning they receive.

For social work, the NASW website has information on accredited programs, and is a great place to begin researching graduate programs.

Funding Opportunities

You may be able to apply for public service fellowships, either for a summer internship or a post-grad, year-long opportunity. See: