Letters of Recommendation

An effective letter of recommendation provides a portrait of who you are beyond your college grades or entrance exam scores. Admissions committees rely on letter of recommendations not only to validate what you have written in your application, but also to gather information about your personality, character, and motivation for your chosen field. For medical or other health professions schools, you are advised to have two letters from science faculty/instructors and one letter from a non-science faculty/instructor.

Before Asking for a Letter

Before approaching faculty or employers for letters of recommendation, reflect on how these letters can strengthen your application.

  • List the qualities that the graduate program is looking for in an applicant. Medical schools seek students who can handle a science-intense curriculum, but who have also shown evidence of compassion and strong motivation for medical careers. To get a sense of what an employer or graduate school is looking for in a candidate, think about who succeeds in the program or job you are seeking.
  • Who can positively comment on these relevant personal qualities?
  • If you need to provide several letters of recommendation, consider how each letter can fill different needs and request letters from individuals who know you in different contexts and can comment on different strengths.
  • What would you like someone to include/address in the letter that may be missing in the rest of your application? Who can comment on your professional behavior? Your maturity? Did you take a particularly challenging sequence of courses that is not necessarily obvious from your transcript? Are there extenuating circumstances that might account for atypical grades?
  • Decide whether you want to waive your right to see the letter of recommendation. For most employers and graduate programs, confidential letters have greater credibility and are assigned greater weight in the application process. Interestingly, many letter writers are less inhibited in praising an applicant when the letter is confidential.
  • Allow plenty of "turnaround time." Be sure the letter writer has the opportunity to write a thoughtful, complete letter without worrying about an unrealistic deadline.

When Asking for a Letter

After deciding which individuals can provide the most positive and complete picture of your relevant skills, experiences, and character traits, make an appointment to meet with each of the potential writers.

  • Ask the letter writer if they feel comfortable writing a letter to support your application. If they seem hesitant or ambivalent, thank them for their time but do not request a letter from this individual. It is crucial that the person writing your letter is positive about your application and conveys that in their letter. If a letter is lukewarm or negative, it can reflect poorly on your ability to judge how you appear to others as well as give the employer or graduate program feedback that you did not intend to convey.
  • Feel free to share these letter guidelines provided by the AAMC.
  • The letter of recommendation will be especially effective if the writers describe specific examples and instances whenever possible. So, provide each letter writer with information relevant to your experience and application. This could be a resume, a personal statement, a reminder of particular incidents or discussions, etc. Spend some time with the letter writer discussing how this information relates to your application. Let them know what would be helpful to include in the letter. Consider whether the writer can comment on any of the AAMC competencies for entering medical students.

After Asking for a Letter

Don't forget to thank the person writing your letter by sending a thank-you note. Let them know the outcome of your application. Not only could their letter make the difference in whether or not you are accepted, you most likely will want to ask for letters again in the future.